Two specific problems of content analysis that are often discussed in this context are problems of inference and problems of reliability TITSCHER et al. Having its origin in navigation, military strategy and geodetic surveying, the term triangulation in social research is used in a less literal sense to describe the use of multiple methods and measures of an empirical phenomenon cf. Basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis Source: The choice of one or other of these pathways affects the process of operationalization, as in the decision of using categories a priori or not; but in both cases, they are at stake conceptions about the statutes of empirical data in support of a theory and the independence or dependence of the latter in relation to those same empirical data. Case study method, key issues, key texts. It is actually a package of techniques from which the analyst can chose and then adapts to his research question 8.

This means that in a comprehensive study which aims at analyzing different kinds of data material, the same method can be applied to different types of evidence—a major advantage not only from a pragmatic point of view, but also as far as quality criteria are concerned. The steps of inductive category development are displayed in Figure 2. The alignment theory-phenomenon-datum top-down, as indicated by Bailer-Jones , is in the relationship among the analysis procedures and the theoretical model, although this model is provisional, and in the procedures of confrontation “test” , which may lead to the abandonment of a theoretical model in favor of another, more promising for understanding the phenomenon by abduction. The practice of social research 9th ed. The concern is with the general statements and phrases:

This section explores and discusses the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research and thus tries to find an answer to the research question initially posed see Section 2. If the categories emerging from the data, not from the theory, then one can say that these categories are grounded in the data, i.

The main argument in this article is that the use of CA by researchers in psychology often ignores its potential for generating alternative explanatory theories, which can avoid both the trap of “corroboration” deduction or imposition of the theory to the datum, as the “reification of the datum” induction – building a punctual theory that will not go beyond the datum itself.


The main points of case study research are presented only as far as they seem to be relevant for the analysis of the research question see 2. In turn, the qualitative performs inferences based on the presence or absence of coded and categorized elements. Synthese, 1 Indeed, the case study’s unique strength is “its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations” YIN, a, p. The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research.

The phenomenon more stable is the starting point for defining what data contextual should be collected, and it is also the meeting point of the procedures for analyzing data with the theoretical model. To analyze qualitative data, the researcher can use predefined categories based on the theoretical referential – backed induction by theory of defined based.

Contennt can certainly contribute to adding and enhancing rigor, validity and reliability of case study research.

Kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

Mayring, Philipp a, June. It should be determined on what part of the communication inferences shall be made, to aspects of the communicator his experiences, opinions, feelingsto the situation of the text production, to the socio-cultural background, to the text itself or to the effect of the message. We discuss the processes of coding and categorization and their underlying logical mechanisms: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung14 1.

Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and evaluated. HARTLEYfor instance, states that case study research “consists of a detailed investigation, often with data collected over a period of time, of phenomena, within their context,” with the aim being “to provide an analysis of the context and processes which illuminate the theoretical issues being studied” p.

The use of the qualitative content analysis in psychology: a critical review

From the perspective of Bardinthe development of CA can be organized into three stages. Experteninterviews und qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als Instrumente rekonstruierender Untersuchungen.

According to MAYRING a, [15];[15] the main idea here is to give explicit definitions, examples and coding rules for each deductive category, determining exactly under what circumstances a text passage can be coded with a category. It is important that there is an alignment.

The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research, Forum. Original publicado em This alignment is that it allows the researcher to select portions of the empirical material as those containing relevant information about the phenomenon. The phenomenon and the theoretical model remain strongly connected, although the test or the questioning of the phenomenon model occurs at the level of generation and analysis of the data, as figure 1 shows Bailer-Jones, The Figure 1with some adaptations, illustrates the view of this author, who introduces a model notion in the composition of the datum- phenomenon-theory triad, presenting it as a central element for the indirect test of theory and the mediation between and data and theory.


kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

Basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis Source: In fact, the exchange of a model by other means involves, to some extent, some theoretical development. Thus, the material is reduced and a new basis of information separate from the original text comes into existence ibid. Then, a basic introduction to qualitative content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given.

How to cite this article. In fact, the research strategy that is regularly pursued in content analysis is governed by these traditional criteria of validity quaalitative reliability, where the latter is a precondition for the former but not vice versa TITSCHER et al.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

From Underground to Elite: The topic cover letter switchboard operator choice is rare in research studies, where it is usually substituted by a more. This broad and diverse classification difficult to establish precisely what would actually be the CA, but that there is a process that suggests being common to all the techniques listed above, especially in the CA categorical, which will be our focus in the next section: The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what kind of other errors can be made or occur in conducting content analysis ibid.

Besides, theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research