Blending is the most common form of manufacture, and the simplest, as it requires only physically mixing the precursor chemicals together. Denied the precursors for simple blends, they resort to processing materials to produce the feedstock of their explosives, such as by isolating AN from CAN. The Evolving Tactics of a Terrorist Group The attempt to solve a problem by making policy in the midst of or in response to a crisis can create even greater difficulties. The main charge of an IED contains the largest amount of explosive; a description of the main charge used in each attack is shown in Table , along with the estimated mass. To generate a more-focused short list of precursor chemicals, the committee considered two variables: Please support AOAV’s work and donate. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.
To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. They switched to almost entirely using up-armored SVBIEDs in areas that they swept through, a change necessitated by the shift away from guerrilla tactics to more semi-conventional combat in these areas. The pulverized CAN could be mixed with a variety of fuels to make an effective explosive filler. Continuous reevaluation of the precursors is encouraged by the committee, as some of the rankings may change over time with an evolving threat environment. The original document contains color images.
There is an additional caveat for certain precursor chemicals insofar as they come in a diverse range of concentrations when contained in commercial products or bulk mixtures. Based on feedback from you, our users, we’ve made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Ratings were made in a conservative fashion when possible, with some chemicals that had been used by single groups, under very limiting circumstances, receiving a lower priority rating.
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One such innovation came about after the beginning of the Mosul offensive last year. Aluminum was applied consistently for smaller, mortar-borne charges, and sugar was used in the larger-scale VBIEDs.
For many HMEs, vvbied than one synthetic route is possible, involving different precursor chemicals. What do we do? Explosives used against aviation targets historically have been military formulations due to their reliability and power, although recent terrorist plots against aircraft have used HMEs, albeit below the mass seen in PBIEDs.
The news website that received one of the anonymous calls at 5: Login or Register to save! The original document contains color images. They utilised a wide range of colours, sometimes even bright hues that seem counter-intuitive from a camouflage viewpoint. Blending is the most common form of manufacture, and the simplest, as it requires only physically mixing the precursor chemicals together.
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The handbook promotes an improved understanding of terrorist incident objectives, motivation, planning, and conduct of operations. These are not the only possible charges for each use-case. Under the second criterion, past usage of a precursor was taken as an indicator of its continued potential to be applied in IEDs in the present and future. The committee sorted the chemicals into three groups based on whether they met the conditions of the higher priority for one, two, or three criteria.
Some precursor chemicals have been consistently used in IEDs across the world for many decades, while others have seen only brief use by one isolated terrorist group or individual, only to quickly disappear from malicious use.
While beyond the scope of this study, it may also be possible to drive toward scenarios with less lethal or damaging consequence i. Page 35 Share Cite.
At a distance of dase an overpressure of 0. Not all precursor chemicals can be used to make the main charges for every bombing scenario. The immense pressure felt by the ongoing ground and aerial campaign against them has also forced them to experiment and innovate in many other aspects.
Every chemical in Table is viewed as a viable precursor chemical and a viable threat, whether it has been sorted into Group A, B, or C. Continuous reevaluation of the precursors is encouraged by the committee, as some of the rankings may change over time with an evolving threat environment.
In this situation, vbird use of covert S VBIEDs does not make sense anymore, as they most likely would be disabled before reaching the target.
Of the two, urea is much more commonly available than nitric acid, and the only explosive it can be used to produce is urea nitrate. Looking at the trend in Tablemore bombing incidents are reporting smaller charge mass sizes, consistent with PBIEDs.
At the same time, they also used up-armored Sfudy against well-defended targets, in areas where they had an increased presence and fighting stuy especially tough. Apart from a couple of security guards, nobody else was in the immediate area, which police swiftly cordoned off.
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Email it to a friend! For the criterion of historical usage, chemicals previously used to produce explosives Y were assigned higher priority, and those whose usage was either extremely rare or largely theoretical N were assigned lower priority.
Detonators use precursor chemicals in very small amounts, but the primary explosives they produce are often very sensitive and unstable. National Technical Reports Library.