Earlier in the century Jolof had been confronted with another threat to its sovereignty in militant Is- lam, and earlier still civil strife had disrupted the political system for over a decade. They established a theocracy under an elected religious leader or almaami from the Arabic al- imam to govern the country. General topics for essay writing pdf. Biram Njeme Kumba Njay. Although Bawol was nev- er formally annexed to Kajoor, some dameels made themselves kings of both countries, while others saw that Bawol’ s rulers were their relatives and allies. If fewer than a hundred were resettled in Njambur, perhaps only that number took refuge in Waalo.

Peterhouse essay competition Kajoor’ s location was also advanta- geous to trade with Europeans on the coast. Political power was viewed in Jolof and the other Wolof kingdoms as both a responsibility and a privilege. University of Paris, , ff. In the early s the blockhouse was finished, and Njay Ndar became the larg- est of several villages built around it. Pinet-Laprade feared that Ma Ba’s entire army would en- ter Kajoor, and he sent reinforcements to Njambur. He notes that the kings of Waalo received more in coutumes than the value of their trade, for all the river trade passed through Waalo before reaching Saint Louis.

Although the buurba asked various governors of Saint Louis to mediate with Muhammad al-Habib, attempts made in failed, and early in Jolof was described as “weak, miserable, and continually exposed to the pillaging of But such oppression did exist, and the almaami was aware of it; this was undoubtedly important in his decision to attack Jolof.

Full text of “Precolonial Senegal : the Jolof Kingdom, “

As one of the major kangaams in Kajoor, Tanor had his own aeddosbut when he came to Jolof, he went to the princes of the Neg Buuri Nebu family and asked them to join him against Lat Kodu. He worked in a basement and ke not wear a collar, at least by day. Albuuri Njay’s emigration was one response to a problem Jo- lof and other Senegalese states faced by the late nineteenth cen- tury: Two weeks after his return, however, he again feared an attack from Rip and fled into Bambuhu.


As they prepared to depart, a Fuulbe chief gave them a hundred donkeys for transportation, an indication of their number.

dissertation sur le djolof

In the rare intermarriages between castepersons and others, the children as- sumed caste status, el children of a slave mother inherited her status unless their father was the woman’s owner, in which event they were freeborn. Let us cross Senegal, we will find the spot with indispensible security for our well-being Essay on pixar animation.

Traite negriere dissertation

As a result, many of Jolof’s buurbas were related ma- trilineally to either the Ndaw or the Nail family. His plea was ignored.

dissertation sur le djolof

Whatever Tanor’ s intentions, they were thwarted, for early in the French learned that the dameel had forced him to leave Kajoor stripped of his title. Jolof, in contrast, exported very few slaves and received few trade goods from the French; royal authority did not increase there in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

dissertation sur le djolof

In and there was a long dispute be- tween Tanor Jen in Jolof and Mercure Nan, the chief of Njay Ndar, which reduced what little trade did exist in the area. Some environmental pollution essay in english words teachers day were rich and haughty in general effect, others simple and perhaps dingy in appearance. Desire-Vuillemin, Essai sur le gommier et le commerce de la gomme dans les escales du Senegal Dakar, n. The other Wolof states were in a similar position.

In July the brak of Waalo signed a treaty in which he agreed to the creation of the post and promised to protect trade. The rulers, however, saw Islam as a political threat which could remove them from power.

The mahdi had initiated him iThe Tijaniyya is a sufi order tariqa founded in the Maghrib at the end of the eighteenth century.

Dissertation sur le djolof

He requested permission for himself and the other marabouts to settle in Bunuun, for, al- though they did not want to join Ma Ba, neither did they wish to 60 Ba, “Rip,” He rallied the Jolof nobility around him and went to Sagata, where he informed Tanor’s men that they would have to accept his authority if they wished to remain in Jolof.


Lat Joor was forced into exile, and Majojo was reinstalled. But he found even the bravest soldiers of his party irresolute, and exclaimed, not, it is said, without interjections dissertation sur le djolof which ill became the mouth of a father of the church, write an essay about your favorite food point a few lines that the best of all causes and the most precious of all moments had been pusillanimously thrown away.

Although Lat Kodu was also a member of the Neg Buuri Nebu family, he was dis- liked by the nobility because of his slave mother. Within the group of royal princes who were descendants of Giraan or Lat Samba and hence eligible to be buurba, there were preferred rules of succession, the most important of which was that a candidate’s mother be of noble birth.

In his report, Caille was optimistic about trade possibil- ities in Jolof. There it is, again. SiColvin, “State of Kajoor,” passim, discusses these attempts.

The Berbers who had submitted to them formed the marabout or zawiya class, renouncing warfare for religion and trade. Sabatie’, Le Senegal Saint Louis, n. The Kings of Jolof II: Princes within these groups were more often rivals than allies, and there was no rule that the title should alternate between the families. And as to the Socialist schemes for the reorganization of society, they imply, at most, a wish to see all men start fair in the race of life, the only advantages allowed being not those of rank or station, but solely of innate capacity.

For a discussion of water and wells in Senegal, see G.

He remained in his pro- vince, Lamdu, unless called by the buurba to the capital.