September 11 attacks, series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in by 19 militants…. It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in the hunting shirt and the moccasin” Turner 4. Besides, Turner used the words “frontier” and “West” interchangeably, with the result that the historian put an end to the history of the West at the same time as he announced the closing of the frontier, in You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Turner’s thesis quickly became popular among intellectuals.
Where Turner told the triumphalist story of the frontier’s promotion of a distinctly American democracy, many of his critics have argued that precisely the opposite was the case. Turner’s essay reached triumphalist heights in his belief that the promotion of individualistic democracy was the most important effect of the frontier. Turner sets up the East and the West as opposing forces; as the West strives for freedom, the East seeks to control it. University Press of Kansas, , Many believed that the end of the frontier represented the beginning of a new stage in American life and that the United States must expand overseas.
Turner begins the essay by calling to attention the fact that the western frontier line, which had defined the entirety of American history up to the s, had ended. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. The public has ignored academic historians’ anti-Turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage.
Indeed, Turner was an American historian, who read the westward movement as the key explanation for American history. He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianisma lack of interest in high cultureand violence.
That is why historians like David Wrobel and Michael Steiner have recently called for a study of the “many Wests within the larger West” Wrobel and Steiner 11one that would go beyond both the old frontier paradigm and the fixed and rigid entity of New Western History.
Micheaux promoted the West as a place tirners blacks could experience less institutionalized forms of racism and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance. Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism. While Turner, in spite of his sweeping assertions and fuzzy definitions, wrote a national history, the New Historians limit the scope of their analyses to the westernmost part of the United States.
The frontier had no need for standing armies, established churches, aristocrats or nobles. Historians have noted that John F. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.
PBS – THE WEST – Frederick Jackson Turner
You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power. But even within Western and frontier history, a growing body of historians has contested Turner’s approach. Keep Exploring Britannica September 11 attacks. Nash, “The frontier thesis: Oxford University Press, Turner saw the land frontier was ending, since the U.
Slatta, “Taking Our Myths Seriously. Gregory Nobles, for instance, studies the frontier as “an area of interaction between two or more cultures in which neither culture is assumed to have an altogether superior position. This development, in Turner’s description of the frontier, “begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader Turner held that the American character was decisively shaped by conditions on the frontier, in particular the abundance of free land, the settling of which engendered such traits as self-reliance, individualisminventiveness, restless energy, mobility, materialism, and optimism.
Observing that three centuries of westward expansion bred national traits that distinguish Americans from Europeans, Turner claimed that “to the frontier the American intellect owes its striking characteristics” Turner 37such as individualism, energy, optimism and enthusiasm.
According to Bancroft, the Germanic germs had spread across of all Western Europe by the Middle Ages and had reached their height. Hill and Wang, Cooperation and communities of various sorts, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.
Wyman and Clifton B.
This is the frontier—the America—we have set ourselves to reclaim. Where Turner told the triumphalist story of the frontier’s promotion of a distinctly Hte democracy, many of his critics have argued that precisely the opposite was the case. A historical perspective,” Journal of the West Oct 34 4 pp.
If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Kolb and Hoddeson argue that during the heyday of Kennedy’s “New Frontier,” the physicists who built the Fermi Labs explicitly sought to recapture the excitement of the old frontier.
John Perry Barlowalong with Mitch Kaporpromoted the idea of cyberspace the realm of telecommunication as an “electronic frontier” beyond the borders of any physically based government, in which freedom and self-determination could be fully realized.
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